Are Bison Still Alive?

Key Takeaways:

  • Bison were nearly driven to extinction in the 19th century due to overhunting but have rebounded due to conservation efforts.
  • There are currently around 500,000 bison in the United States, with 5,000 in Yellowstone National Park.
  • While no longer threatened, bison still face challenges like genetic diversity loss and habitat destruction.
  • American bison are ecologically extinct since herds no longer migrate across the plains like historically.
  • Conservation herds of 1,000+ bison are being established to restore their ecological role on the prairies.


The American bison, commonly known as the buffalo, is an iconic symbol of the American West. These majestic, shaggy beasts once roamed the plains in enormous herds, shaping the landscape and providing sustenance for Native Americans. But in the 19th century, the bison were hunted to the brink of extinction, with less than 1,000 remaining by the late 1800s. This rapid decimation raised the alarming question – are bison still alive today?

This article will comprehensively evaluate the current status of bison populations across North America. It will analyze the threats they faced in the past, ongoing conservation efforts, and existing challenges to their future. The goal is to provide a detailed overview of where bison stand today and what is being done to ensure the continued survival of this ecologically and culturally vital species. Readers will gain insight into bison ecology, the history of their near-eradication, and reasons for hope regarding their resurgence.

The analysis will incorporate recent population data, trends, and expert perspectives from conservation organizations. It will also highlight the importance of establishing genetically diverse herds and restoring bison's ecological role across their historic range. By evaluating the evidence, this article will definitively answer whether bison still exist and how experts assess their future outlook. The comprehensive information provided will give readers a fuller understanding of the American bison's status.

Why Were Bison Nearly Wiped Out?

The American bison once numbered in the tens of millions, migrating across the Great Plains in massive herds. Their numbers plummeted due to systematic overhunting in the 19th century. What factors led to this drastic population decline?

Commercial Hunting for Hides

The demand for bison hides drove rampant slaughter of the animals. Hides were used to make commercial leather goods. One hide could fetch $3-$50. The transcontinental railroad's completion in 1869 enabled large-scale bison hunting for hides to eastern markets.

US Government Policy

The US government deliberately encouraged bison slaughter to deprive Native Americans of a vital resource and force their move to reservations. Mass killing of bison also helped make way for settlers' livestock.

Habitat Loss and Disease

Expanding railroads, ranching, and farming led to destruction of bison's grassland habitat. New livestock brought diseases like anthrax, which further decimated bison numbers.

By 1889, there were less than 1,000 bison left, down from 30-60 million pre-colonization. With extinction looming, conservation efforts finally commenced to save the remaining bison.

How Low Did Bison Populations Get?

Bison were nearly eradicated in the 19th century due to excessive hunting and loss of habitat. Some key figures illustrate just how dire the situation became:

  • 30-60 million: Estimated bison population before 1800s.
  • Less than 1,000: Remaining wild bison by 1889.
  • 325: Bison existing in central Alberta, Canada by 1896.
  • 750: Surviving bison in Yellowstone National Park in 1902.
  • 12: Number of bison surviving outside Yellowstone Park by 1902.
  • 300,000: Bison killed for their tongues alone between 1872 and 1874.

These shocking numbers show that humans very nearly wiped out one of the largest land mammals in North America. Ongoing conservation efforts have helped bison rebound from the brink.

Do Significant Wild Bison Herds Still Exist?

Yes, wild bison herds have rebounded significantly across parts of their historic range, though challenges remain:

  • Yellowstone National Park: Around 5,000 bison comprise the largest conserved herd on public lands.
  • Badlands National Park, SD: Over 1,000 bison were introduced starting in 1963.
  • Henry Mountains, UT: Free-roaming herd of ~400 bison, descendants of bison relocated here in the 1940s.
  • Elk Island National Park, Alberta: One of the few remaining plains bison herds that was never extirpated, with ~500 bison today.
  • Janos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico: Managed wild herd of ~700 bison, located in their original habitat.
  • Alaska: Free-roaming bison herds introduced in the 1950s and 1960s total around 900 animals.
  • American Prairie Reserve, MT: Working to establish a herd of over 1,000 bison on restored prairie.

So while no vast migratory herds exist today, sizeable wild populations have been re-established across parts of the bison's native range. Continued conservation efforts focus on growing these herds.

What Is the Total US Bison Population Today?

The US bison population has rebounded to approximately 500,000 animals today. This recovery is thanks to captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

Key facts about the current US bison population:

  • 31,000: Estimated wild bison in the US as of March 2019.
  • 465,000: Bison in private commercial herds on ranches and farms.
  • 20,000: Bison in conservation herds, managed by tribes, non-profits, and government agencies to preserve genetics.
  • 500,000: Total US bison population today when including commercial, conservation, and wild herds.

While still a fraction of their historic numbers, the roughly 500,000 bison today represent a dramatic recovery for a species that numbered under 1,000 in the late 1800s. Ongoing management aims to increase genetic diversity and expand wild herds.

Are Bison Considered Threatened Or Endangered Today?

No, thanks to conservation efforts, the American bison is no longer considered threatened with extinction today. However, concerns remain:

  • Near Threatened: The IUCN Red List classifies bison as Near Threatened. They remain close to qualifying as Vulnerable.
  • Ecologically Extinct: Bison are considered ecologically extinct – they no longer fulfill their original ecological role due to vastly reduced numbers.
  • Genetic Bottlenecks: Many herds were founded by just a few individuals, causing genetic problems.
  • Habitat Loss: Less than 1% of original bison habitat remains. Further habitat destruction threatens populations.

While bison are recovering, they are still at risk in the long run without continued protection. Their conservation status remains tenuous.

What Conservation Efforts Are Helping Bison?

Many initiatives today aim to support genetically robust, wild bison herds across their historic range:

  • New National Herds: Badlands, Grand Canyon, and other national parks are establishing new wild bison herds, often from quarantined Yellowstone animals.
  • Tribal-Led Restoration: Over 60 Indigenous tribes are restoring bison to reservations through organizations like the InterTribal Buffalo Council.
  • Conservation Herds: Non-profits and government agencies manage herds of 1,000+ bison to preserve genetic diversity.
  • Habitat Restoration: Groups like the American Prairie Reserve work to restore tracts of native prairie to support wild herds.
  • Assisted Migration: Bison translocation to new sites, often far from existing herds, aims to establish genetically distinct herds.
  • Brucellosis Vaccination: Vaccinating animals helps reduce transmission of livestock diseases that impede some bison restoration efforts.

Through initiatives like these, conservationists hope to restore wild, free-ranging bison populations across the continent.

What Challenges Do Bison Still Face Today?

While no longer highly endangered, bison still face a number of challenges to their long-term survival:

Limited Genetic Diversity

Most herds were founded by just a handful of bison, causing inbreeding and low genetic variability. This increases risk of defects and disease susceptibility.

Habitat Loss and Fragmentation

Less than 1% of original bison habitat remains. Wild populations are confined to isolated pockets of public lands. Further habitat loss threatens this.

Disease Risk from Livestock

Diseases like brucellosis can spread from livestock to bison, posing management challenges. Tools like vaccination help reduce transmission.

Climate Change Impacts

Climate change may alter plains and water resources, disrupting local habitats bison rely on.

To secure bison's future, conservation must address these ongoing threats through continued habitat protection, genetic management, and proactive disease control.

Are Bison Being Reintroduced Outside North America?

Yes, European conservation groups like Rewilding Europe are reintroducing bison to several countries to restore lost biodiversity. Some projects include:

  • Romania: Over 200 bison now roam free in forest habitats, from just a few individuals introduced.
  • Poland: Bison were successfully reestablished in the 1950s-60s; over 2,000 now inhabit forests.
  • Russia: Conservation programs have helped Eurasian bison populations grow from under 50 to over 6,000 today.
  • United Kingdom: Plans are underway for a rewilding project to introduce bison to manage forest ecosystems.
  • Armenia: In 2019, 12 bison were transported from Poland to establish a new breeding herd in Armenia.

These efforts help improve the conservation status of the European bison, a different but related subspecies, from vulnerable to near threatened. The goal is for bison to resume their lost ecological role. Reintroduction aims to hit population targets that support full rewilding.

Will Bison Populate the Great Plains Again?

It's unlikely bison will ever roam the Great Plains in the tens of millions again. However, efforts to restore functional, migratory herds are expanding:

  • Yellowstone to Yukon: This initiative aims to enable herd movements between Yellowstone and Canada's Yukon territory.
  • Buffalo Commons: First proposed in 1987, this model envisions bison restoration on over 10 million acres of Great Plains land scaled back from agriculture.
  • American Prairie Reserve: They are piecing together a 3.5 million acre prairie reserve in Montana with hopes for 10,000 roaming bison.
  • Tribal-Led Restoration: Plains tribes are restoring bison to large swaths of reservations through conservation partnerships.
  • National Park/Forest Herds: Badlands NP, Grand Canyon NP, and national forests are expanding wild herds within their boundaries.

While still fragmented compared to historical numbers, significant areas of plains bison habitat are being restored. This provides hope for free-roaming herds to once again inhabit the prairies.


In answering the question “are bison still alive?”, the evidence resoundingly shows that ongoing conservation efforts have pulled this iconic American species back from the brink after 19th century overhunting. While not fully restored, wild bison herds have rebounded in pockets across their native range. Around 500,000 bison exist in the US today, no longer highly endangered but still facing threats. Continued work to expand wild herds, maintain genetic diversity, restore habitat, and increase tolerance for bison as wildlife rather than livestock will help secure their future. With ambitious rewilding projects underway, there is hope that one day vast herds may again roam freely across parts of North America's plains as a restored part of the prairie ecosystem.


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